Brief Analysis: What are the optical fiber end grinding methods?

May 14, 2021

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With the application of 5G technology, the penetration rate of optical fiber is gradually increasing, but there are various kinds of optical fiber in the market, so various parameters need to be confirmed when purchasing. In addition, in order to better connect the two optical fibers, the optical fiber end faces will be ground into different shape structures.

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First, why should optical fiber end face grinding

Because the return loss caused by the reflection of the light source is inevitable, if the light loss is high, the laser light source will be damaged and the transmission signal will be interrupted. Therefore, in order to make the two optical fiber jumper better connected, the end faces of the fiber jumper insert core will be ground into different structural shapes.



Two, there are several common optical fiber end grinding methods

There are three common grinding methods of optical fiber end face, namely PC, UPC and APC



Three, the grinding method is different, the insertion loss and return loss are also different

Different grinding modes determine the transmission quality of optical fiber, which is mainly reflected in insertion loss and return loss


Insertion loss: refers to the decibel number of the output optical power relative to the input optical power after the optical signal passes through the optical fiber jumper


In general, the insertion loss of PC, UPC and APC fiber optic connectors should be less than 0.3dB.Compared to APC fiber optic connectors, UPC/PC fiber optic connectors are generally easier to achieve lower insertion losses due to the smaller air gap.In addition, insertion losses can also be caused by dust particles between the end faces of fiber optic connectors.


Return loss: also known as reflection loss, refers to the decibel number of the backward reflected light power relative to the incident light power at the connection of the optical signal through the optical fiber jumper.


The end faces of APC fiber optic connectors are bevel-polished, so the return loss of APC fiber optic connectors is generally better than that of UPC fiber optic connectors.In general, the return loss of the optical fiber jumper with PC grinding mode is -40dB.The return loss of UPC is higher than that of PC, generally at -55dB.The APC industry standard return loss is -60dB.


When using UPC fiber optic connector, part of the reflected light will be emitted back to the light source, while the oblique end face of APC fiber optic connector will make part of the reflected light reflected to the cladding at an Angle, thus reducing more reflected light returned to the light source.This is the main factor that causes the difference in return loss.


Four, PC, UPC, APC three kinds of optical fiber end face specific applications

PC is the most common grinding method of optical fiber connector on optical fiber jumper wire, which is widely used in the equipment of telecom operators.


UPC is commonly used in Ethernet network equipment (such as ODF fiber distribution frame, media converter and fiber switch, etc.), digital, cable and telephone systems, etc.APC is commonly used for optical RF applications in the high wavelength range such as CATV, as well as for optical passive applications such as PON network structures or passive optical LANs.


Shenzhen Aidetai Technology Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise and a leading OEM manufacturer and exporter of optical fiber communication devices, including optical fiber jumpers, MPO jumpers, WDM wavelength division multiplexers, optical fiber distribution frame, AOC jumpers, etc.....Through continuous innovation and development, Aidetai has a strong technical strength and strong productivity, to ensure the reliability and stability of each product, to provide excellent products for our customers.